House generally refers to a shelter or building that is single family detached dwelling or place for habitation by human beings. "Homes" on the other hand include many kinds of dwellings ranging from rudimentary huts of nomadic tribes to high-rise apartment buildings. However, the word can also be used as a verb ("to house"), and can have adjectival formations as well. In some contexts, "house" may mean the same as dwelling, residence, home, abode, accommodation, housing, lodging, among other meanings. A house is where some people live (most).
The social unit that lives in a house is known as a household. Most commonly, a household is a family unit of some kind, though households can be other social groups, such as single persons, or groups of unrelated individuals. Settled agrarian and industrial societies are composed of household units living permanently in housing of various types, according to a variety of forms of Land tenure. English-speaking people generally call any building they routinely occupy "home". Many people leave their house during the day for work and recreation but typically return to it to sleep or for other activities.
HistoryThe oldest house in the world is approximately from 10,000B.C. and was made of mammoth bones, found at Mezhirich near Kiev in Ukraine. It was probably covered with mammoth hides. The house was discovered in 1965 by a farmer digging a new basement six feet below the ground.
Architect Norbert Schoenauer, in his book 6,000 Years of Housing, identifies three major categories of types of housing: the "Pre-Urban" house, the "Oriental Urban" house, and the "Occidental Urban" house.
Types of Pre-Urban houses include temporary dwellings such as the Inuit igloo, semi-permanent dwellings such as the pueblo, and permanent dwellings such as the New England homestead.
"Oriental Urban" houses include houses of the ancient Greeks and Romans, and traditional urban houses in China, India, and Islamic cities.
"Occidental Urban" houses include medieval urban houses, the Renaissance town house, and the houses, tenements and apartments of the 19th and 20th centuries.
StructureThe developed world in general features three basic types of house that have their own ground-level entry and private open space, and usually on a separately titled parcel of land:
- Single-family detached houses - free-standing on all sides.
- Semi-detached houses (duplexes) - houses that are attached, usually to only one other house via a party wall.
- Terraced house (UK) also known as a row house or townhouse - attached to other houses, possibly in a row, each separated by a party wall.
In addition, there are various forms of attached housing where a number of dwelling units are co-located within the same structure, which share a ground-level entry and may or may not have any private open space, such as apartments (a.k.a. flats) of various scales. Another type of housing is movable, such as houseboats, caravans, and trailer homes.
In the United Kingdom, 27% of the population live in terraced houses and 32% in semi-detached houses, as of 2002. In the United States as of 2000, 61.4% of people live in detached houses and 5.6% in semi-detached houses, 26% in row houses or apartments, and 7% in mobile homes.
ShapeArchaeologists have a particular interest in house shape: they see the transition over time from round huts to rectangular houses as a significant advance in optimizing the use of space, and associate it with the growth of the idea of a personal area (see personal space).
FunctionSome houses transcend the basic functionality of providing "a roof over one's head" or of serving as a family "hearth and home". When a house becomes a display-case for wealth and/or fashion and/or conspicuous consumption, we may speak of a "great house". The residence of a feudal lord or of a ruler may require defensive structures and thus turn into a fort or a castle. The house of a monarch may come to house courtiers and officers as well as the royal family: this sort of house may become a palace. Moreover, in time the lord or monarch may wish to retreat to a more personal or simple space such as a villa, a hunting lodge or a dacha. Compare the popularity of the holiday house or cottage, also known as a crib.
In contrast to a relatively upper class or modern trend to ownership of multiple houses, much of human history shows the importance of multi-purpose houses. Thus the house long served as the traditional place of work (the original cottage industry site or "in-house" small-scale manufacturing workshop) or of commerce (featuring, for example, a ground floor "shop-front" shop or counter or office, with living space above). During the Industrial Revolution there was a separation of manufacturing and banking from the house, though to this day some shopkeepers continue (or have returned) to live "over the shop".
Inside the house
Many houses have several rooms with specialized functions. These may include a living/eating area, a sleeping area, and (if suitable facilities and services exist) washing and lavatory areas. In traditional agriculture-oriented societies, domestic animals such as chickens or larger livestock (like cattle) often share part of the house with human beings. Most conventional modern houses will at least contain a bedroom, bathroom, kitchen (or kitchen area), and a living room. A typical "foursquare house" (as pictured) occurred commonly in the early history of the United States of America, with a staircase in the center of the house, surrounded by four rooms, and connected to other sections of the house (including in more recent eras a garage).
The names of parts of a house often echo the names of parts of other buildings, but could typically include:
- Fireplace (for warmth during winter; generally not found in warmer climates)
- front room (in various senses of the phrase)
- hearth - often an important symbolic focus of family togetherness
- laundry room
- living room or den
- office or study
- recreation room / rumpus room / television room
- shrines to serve the religious functions associated with a family
- storage room / box room
LayoutIdeally, architects of houses design rooms to meet the needs of the people who will live in the house. Such designing, known as "interior design", has become a popular subject in universities. Feng shui, originally a Chinese method of situating houses according to such factors as sunlight and micro-climates, has recently expanded its scope to address the design of interior spaces with a view to promoting harmonious effects on the people living inside the house. Feng shui can also mean the 'aura' in or around a dwelling. Compare the real-estate sales concept of "indoor-outdoor flow".
The square footage of a house in the United States reports the area of "living space", excluding the garage and other non-living spaces. The "square meters" figure of a house in Europe reports the area of the walls enclosing the home, and thus includes any attached garage and non-living spaces.
ConstructionIn the United States, modern house-construction techniques include light-frame construction (in areas with access to supplies of wood) and adobe or sometimes rammed-earth construction (in arid regions with scarce wood-resources). Some areas use brick almost exclusively, and quarried stone has long provided walling. To some extent, aluminum and steel have displaced some traditional building materials. Increasingly popular alternative construction materials include insulating concrete forms (foam forms filled with concrete), structural insulated panels (foam panels faced with oriented strand board or fiber cement), and light-gauge steel framing and heavy-gauge steel framing.
More generally, people often build houses out of the nearest available material, and often tradition and/or culture govern construction-materials, so whole towns, areas, counties or even states/countries may be built out of one main type of material. For example, a large fraction of American houses use wood, while most British and many European houses utilize stone or brick.
In the 1900s, some house designers started using prefabrication. Sears, Roebuck & Co. first marketed their Houses by Mail to the general public in 1908. Prefab techniques became popular after World War II. First small inside rooms framing, then later, whole walls were prefabricated and carried to the construction site. The original impetus was to use the labor force inside a shelter during inclement weather. More recently builders have begun to collaborate with structural engineers who use computers and finite element analysis to design prefabricated steel-framed homes with known resistance to high wind-loads and seismic forces. These newer products provide labor savings, more consistent quality, and possibly accelerated construction processes.
Lesser-used construction methods have gained (or regained) popularity in recent years. Though not in wide use, these methods frequently appeal to homeowners who may become actively involved in the construction process. They include:
Energy-efficiencyIn the developed world, energy-conservation has grown in importance in house-design. Housing produces a major proportion of carbon emissions (30% of the total in the UK, for example).
Development of a number of low-energy building types and techniques continues. They include the zero-energy house, the passive solar house, superinsulated and houses built to the Passivhaus standard.
Legal issuesBuildings with historical importance have restrictions.
United KingdomNew houses in the UK are not covered by the Sale of Goods Act. When purchasing a new house the buyer has less legal protection than when buying a new car. New houses in the UK may be covered by a NHBC guarantee but some people feel that it would be more useful to put new houses on the same legal footing as other products.
USA & CanadaIn the US and Canada, many new houses are built in housing tracts, which provide homeowners a sense of "belonging" and the feeling they have "made the best use" of their money. However, these houses are often built as cheaply and quickly as possible by large builders seeking to maximize profits. Many environmental health issues are ignored or minimized in the construction of these structures. In one case in Benicia, California, a housing tract was built over an old landfill. Homebuyers were never told, and only found out when some began having reactions to high levels of lead and chromium.
Identifying housesWith the growth of dense settlement, humans designed ways of identifying houses and/or parcels of land. Individual houses sometimes acquire proper names; and those names may acquire in their turn considerable emotional connotations: see for example the house of Howards End or the castle of Brideshead Revisited. A more systematic and general approach to identifying houses may use various methods of house numbering.
Animal housesHumans often build "houses" for domestic or wild animals, often resembling smaller versions of human domiciles. Familiar animal houses built by humans include bird-houses, hen-houses/chicken-coops and doghouses (kennels); while housed agricultural animals more often live in barns and stables. However, human interest in building houses for animals does not stop at the domestic pet. People build bat-houses, nesting-sites for wild ducks and other birds, as well as for many other animals.
ShelterForms of (relatively) simple shelter may include:
Houses and symbolismHouses may express the circumstances or opinions of their builders or their inhabitants. Thus a vast and elaborate house may serve as a sign of conspicuous wealth, whereas a low-profile house built of recycled materials may indicate support of energy conservation.
Houses of particular historical significance (former residences of the famous, for example, or even just very old houses) may gain a protected status in town planning as examples of built heritage and/or of streetscape values. Plaques may mark such structures.
House-ownership (home-ownership) provides a common measure of prosperity in economics. Contrast the importance of house-destruction, tent dwelling and house rebuilding in the wake of many natural disasters.
- Affordable housing
- Architectural structure
- Building material
- Domotics, home automation and domestic robots.
- Earth-sheltered home
- Housing bubble
- Housing estate
- HUD USER
- Housing in Japan
- Housewarming party
- Hurricane proof house
- Mobile home
- Modular home
- Regulatory Barriers Clearinghouse
- Vernacular architecture
- Visitability - Social Integration Beyond Independent Living
indoors in Tosk Albanian: Haus
indoors in Arabic: منزل
indoors in Official Aramaic (700-300 BCE): ܒܝܬܐ
indoors in Guarani: Óga
indoors in Aymara: Uta
indoors in Bengali: ঘর
indoors in Breton: Ti
indoors in Bulgarian: Къща
indoors in Catalan: Casa
indoors in Czech: Dům
indoors in Welsh: Tŷ
indoors in Danish: Hus
indoors in German: Haus
indoors in Modern Greek (1453-): Κατοικία
indoors in Spanish: Casa
indoors in Esperanto: Domo
indoors in Basque: Etxe
indoors in French: Maison
indoors in Friulian: Cjase
indoors in Galician: Casa
indoors in Korean: 집
indoors in Indonesian: Rumah
indoors in Icelandic: Hús
indoors in Italian: Casa
indoors in Hebrew: בית מגורים
indoors in Georgian: სახლი
indoors in Kinyarwanda: Inzu
indoors in Swahili (macrolanguage): Nyumba
indoors in Latin: Domus
indoors in Lithuanian: Namas
indoors in Hungarian: Ház
indoors in Malay (macrolanguage): Rumahnah:Chāntli
indoors in Dutch: Woning
indoors in Dutch Low Saxon: Huus
indoors in Japanese: 家屋
indoors in Norwegian: Hus
indoors in Norwegian Nynorsk: Hus
indoors in Narom: Maisoun
indoors in Occitan (post 1500): Ostal
indoors in Polish: Dom
indoors in Portuguese: Casa
indoors in Kölsch: Huß
indoors in Vlax Romani: Kher
indoors in Quechua: Wasi
indoors in Russian: Жилище
indoors in Simple English: House
indoors in Slovenian: Hiša
indoors in Sundanese: Imah
indoors in Swedish: Hus
indoors in Tagalog: Tahanan
indoors in Kabyle: Axxam
indoors in Thai: บ้าน
indoors in Vietnamese: Nhà
indoors in Turkish: Ev
indoors in Ukrainian: Житло
indoors in Yiddish: הויז
indoors in Samogitian: Noms
indoors in Chinese: 住宅